Congressional Research Service

A Guide to Describing the Income Distribution

Congressional Research Service

ISBN:9781508433385

The distribution of income in the United States features heavily in congressional discussions about the middle class, program funding and effectiveness...more details
Format:Paperback / softback  Pages:36

AUD $30.95

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A New Authorization for Use of Military Force Against the Islamic State - Issues and Current Proposals in Brief

Congressional Research Service

ISBN:9781508604686

In 2014, the armed offensive of the Islamic State (IS, also known as ISIL, ISIS, or Daesh) in northern and western Iraq and northeastern Syria raised significant concerns for the United States. After first ordering multiple deployments of U.S. troops to Iraq to provide security to diplomatic personnel and facilities...more details
Format:Paperback / softback  Pages:26

AUD $30.95

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A Shift in the International Security Environment - Potential Implications for Defense-Issues for Congress

Congressional Research Service

ISBN:9781507736661

World events since late 2013 have led some observers to conclude that the international security environment is undergoing a shift from the familiar post-Cold War era of the last 20-25 years...more details
Format:Paperback / softback  Pages:44

AUD $31.95

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Access to Broadband Networks - The Net Neutrality Debate

Congressional Research Service

ISBN:9781508432388

As congressional policy makers continue to debate telecommunications reform, a major discussion point revolves around what approach should be taken to ensure unfettered access to the Internet. The move to place restrictions on the owners of the networks that compose and provide access to the Internet...more details
Format:Paperback / softback  Pages:26

AUD $30.95

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Addressing the Long-Run Budget Deficit - A Comparison of Approaches

Congressional Research Service

ISBN:9781512273571

A small share of federal spending is for direct provision of domestic government services, which many people may think of when considering federal spending. Because this spending is normally about 10% of total federal spending and about 2% of gross domestic product (GDP) and deficits are projected to be 2.8% of GDP and rising in the future...more details
Format:Paperback / softback  Pages:42

AUD $25.95

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Agricultural Conservation - A Guide to Programs

Congressional Research Service

ISBN:9781508641032

The Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) and the Farm Service Agency (FSA) in the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) currently administer close to 20 programs and subprograms that are directly or indirectly available to assist producers and landowners who wish to practice conservation on agricultural lands...more details
Format:Paperback / softback  Pages:30

AUD $25.95

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Agriculture and Related Agencies - Fy2015 Appropriations

Congressional Research Service

ISBN:9781508432807

The Agriculture appropriations bill funds the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), except for the Forest Service. It includes the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and-in the House and in even-numbered enacted fiscal years-the Commodity Futures Trading Commission (CFTC)...more details
Format:Paperback / softback  Pages:96

AUD $30.95

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Alien Removals and Returns - Overview and Trends

Congressional Research Service

ISBN:9781508433415

The ability to remove foreign nationals (aliens) who violate U.S. immigration law is central to the immigration enforcement system. Some lawful migrants violate the terms of their admittance...more details
Format:Paperback / softback  Pages:36

AUD $30.95

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An Overview of Unconventional Oil and Natural Gas - Resources and Federal Actions

Congressional Research Service

ISBN:9781512308594

The United States has seen resurgence in petroleum production, mainly driven by technology improvements-especially hydraulic fracturing and directional drilling-developed for natural gas production from shale formations. Application of these technologies enabled natural gas to be economically produced from shale and other unconventional formations...more details
Format:Paperback / softback  Pages:32

AUD $31.95

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Appropriations and Fund Transfers in the Affordable Care ACT (ACA)

Congressional Research Service

ISBN:9781508700272

Implementation of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (Affordable Care Act, or ACA) is having a significant impact on federal mandatory-also known as direct-spending...more details
Format:Paperback / softback  Pages:32

AUD $25.95

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Arms Control and Nonproliferation - A Catalog of Treaties and Agreements

Congressional Research Service

ISBN:9781508686873

Arms control and nonproliferation efforts are two of the tools that have occasionally been used to implement U.S. national security strategy. Although some believe these tools do little to restrain the behavior of U.S. adversaries...more details
Format:Paperback / softback  Pages:78

AUD $19.95

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Asset Forfeiture - Selected Legal Issues and Reforms

Congressional Research Service

ISBN:9781508433422

From its beginning in the First Congress, Congress has viewed asset forfeiture as an integral part of federal crime fighting: It takes contraband off the streets...more details
Format:Paperback / softback  Pages:34

AUD $30.95

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Bee Health - Background and Issues for Congress

Congressional Research Service

ISBN:9781507735947

Bees, both commercially managed honey bees and wild bees, play an important role in global food production. In the United States alone, the value of insect pollination to U.S. agricultural production is estimated at $16 billion annually...more details
Format:Paperback / softback  Pages:36

AUD $31.95

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Bee Health - Background and Issues for Congress

Congressional Research Service

ISBN:9781512273267

Bees, both commercially managed honey bees and wild bees, play an important role in global food production. In the United States alone, the value of insect pollination to U.S. agricultural production is estimated at $16 billion annually...more details
Format:Paperback / softback  Pages:34

AUD $31.95

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Bee Health - The Role of Pesticides

Congressional Research Service

ISBN:9781508605119

Over the past few decades there has been heightened concern about the plight of honey bees as well as other bee species. Given the importance of honey bees and other bee species to food production...more details
Format:Paperback / softback  Pages:48

AUD $30.95

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Bee Health - The Role of Pesticides

Congressional Research Service

ISBN:9781508604679

Over the past few decades there has been heightened concern about the plight of honey bees as well as other bee species. Given the importance of honey bees and other bee species to food production...more details
Format:Paperback / softback  Pages:46

AUD $29.95

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Bitcoin - Questions, Answers, and Analysis of Legal Issues

Congressional Research Service

ISBN:9781507868393

Bitcoin first appeared in January 2009, the creation of a computer programmer using the pseudonym Satoshi Nakamoto. His invention is an open-source (its controlling computer code is open to public view)...more details
Format:Paperback / softback  Pages:32

AUD $31.95

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Border Security - Immigration Enforcement Between Ports of Entry

Congressional Research Service

ISBN:9781512250503

Across a variety of indicators, the United States has substantially expanded border enforcement resources over the last three decades. Particularly since 2001...more details
Format:Paperback / softback  Pages:50

AUD $25.95

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Border Security - Immigration Inspections at Ports of Entry

Congressional Research Service

ISBN:9781507868386

About 362 million travelers (citizens and non-citizens) entered the United States in FY2013, including about 102 million air passengers and crew...more details
Format:Paperback / softback  Pages:42

AUD $31.95

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Changes in the Arctic - Background and Issues for Congress

Congressional Research Service

ISBN:9781507735572

The diminishment of Arctic sea ice has led to increased human activities in the Arctic, and has heightened interest in, and concerns about, the region's future. The United States...more details
Format:Paperback / softback  Pages:130

AUD $31.95

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Child Welfare - An Overview of Federal Programs and Their Current Funding

Congressional Research Service

ISBN:9781507868379

Child welfare services are intended to prevent the abuse or neglect of children; ensure that children have safe, permanent homes; and promote the well-being of children and their families. As the U.S. Constitution has been interpreted...more details
Format:Paperback / softback  Pages:42

AUD $30.95

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Child Welfare - An Overview of Federal Programs and Their Current Funding

Congressional Research Service

ISBN:9781508602880

Child welfare services are intended to prevent the abuse or neglect of children; ensure that children have safe, permanent homes; and promote the well-being of children and their families. As the U.S. Constitution has been interpreted...more details
Format:Paperback / softback  Pages:42

AUD $30.95

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Child Welfare - Health Care Needs of Children in Foster Care and Related Federal Issues

Congressional Research Service

ISBN:9781512273724

Approximately 641,000 children spend some time in foster care each year. Most enter care because they have experienced neglect or abuse by their parents...more details
Format:Paperback / softback  Pages:70

AUD $31.95

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China's Air Defense Identification Zone (Adiz)

Congressional Research Service

ISBN:9781508433392

In November 2013, the People's Republic of China (PRC, or China) announced that it would establish an "East China Sea Air Defense Identification Zone (ADIZ)...more details
Format:Paperback / softback  Pages:46

AUD $30.95

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Commerce, Justice, Science, and Related Agencies - Fy2015 Appropriations

Congressional Research Service

ISBN:9781508602873

This report tracks and describes actions taken by the Administration and Congress to provide FY2015 appropriations for the Commerce, Justice...more details
Format:Paperback / softback  Pages:86

AUD $30.95

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Community Development Financial Institutions (Cdfi) Fund - Programs and Policy Issues

Congressional Research Service

ISBN:9781508432890

As communities face a variety of economic challenges, some are looking to local banks and financial institutions for solutions that address the specific development needs of low-income and distressed communities. Community development financial institutions (CDFIs) provide financial products and services...more details
Format:Paperback / softback  Pages:32

AUD $30.95

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Congressional Commissions - Overview, Structure, and Legislative Considerations

Congressional Research Service

ISBN:9781507868096

Congressional advisory commissions are formal groups established to provide independent advice; make recommendations for changes in public policy; study or investigate a particular problem...more details
Format:Paperback / softback  Pages:34

AUD $31.95

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Congressional Gold Medals, 1776-2014

Congressional Research Service

ISBN:9781508604648

Senators and Representatives are frequently asked to support or sponsor proposals recognizing historic events and outstanding achievements by individuals or institutions. Among the various forms of recognition that Congress bestows...more details
Format:Paperback / softback  Pages:40

AUD $30.95

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Congressional Liaison Offices of Selected Federal Agencies

Congressional Research Service

ISBN:9781508432395

This list of about 200 congressional liaison offices is intended to help congressional offices in placing telephone calls and addressing correspondence to government agencies. In each case...more details
Format:Paperback / softback  Pages:40

AUD $30.95

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Congressional Liaison Offices of Selected Federal Agencies

Congressional Research Service

ISBN:9781508605126

This list of about 200 congressional liaison offices is intended to help congressional offices in placing telephone calls and addressing correspondence to government agencies. In each case...more details
Format:Paperback / softback  Pages:40

AUD $30.95

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Congressional Liaison Offices of Selected Federal Agencies

Congressional Research Service

ISBN:9781508602026

This list of about 200 congressional liaison offices is intended to help congressional offices in placing telephone calls and addressing correspondence to government agencies. In each case...more details
Format:Paperback / softback  Pages:40

AUD $30.95

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Congressional Member Organizations - Purposes and Activities, History, and Formation

Congressional Research Service

ISBN:9781508901853

There are 737 informal Member organizations listed in the Congressional Yellow Book or registered with the Committee on House Administration. According to self-reported information contained in the Congressional Yellow Book...more details
Format:Paperback / softback  Pages:34

AUD $31.95

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Congressional Member Organizations - Their Purpose and Activities, History, and Formation

Congressional Research Service

ISBN:9781508602002

This report examines the historical development and contemporary role of congressional Member organizations (CMOs) in the House and informal Member groups in both the House and the Senate...more details
Format:Paperback / softback  Pages:30

AUD $30.95

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Congressional Membership and Appointment Authority to Advisory Commissions, Boards, and Groups

Congressional Research Service

ISBN:9781507870006

Over the past several decades, Congress, by statute, has established a wide array of commissions, boards, and advisory bodies to provide it with assistance in meeting various legislative...more details
Format:Paperback / softback  Pages:134

AUD $31.95

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Congressional Roll Call Votes on the Keystone XL Pipeline

Congressional Research Service

ISBN:9781508433439

TransCanada's proposed Keystone XL Pipeline would transport oil sands crude from Canada and shale oil produced in North Dakota and Montana to a market hub in Nebraska for further delivery to Gulf Coast refineries. The pipeline would consist of 875 miles of 36-inch pipe with the capacity to transport 830...more details
Format:Paperback / softback  Pages:28

AUD $30.95

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Conventional Prompt Global Strike and Long-Range Ballistic Missiles - Background and Issues

Congressional Research Service

ISBN:9781508432326

Conventional prompt global strike (CPGS) weapons would allow the United States to strike targets anywhere on Earth in as little as an hour. This capability may bolster U...more details
Format:Paperback / softback  Pages:48

AUD $30.95

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Country-Of-Origin Labeling for Foods and the Wto Trade Dispute on Meat Labeling

Congressional Research Service

ISBN:9781507869963

Most retail food stores are now required to inform consumers about the country of origin of fresh fruits and vegetables, fish, shellfish, peanuts...more details
Format:Paperback / softback  Pages:58

AUD $31.95

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Current Debates Over Exchange Rates - Overview and Issues for Congress

Congressional Research Service

ISBN:9781507735916

Exchange rates affect the price of every country's imports and exports, as well as the value of every overseas investment. Following the global financial crisis of 2008-2009 and ensuing economic recession...more details
Format:Paperback / softback  Pages:34

AUD $31.95

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Cybersecurity - Authoritative Reports and Resources, by Topic

Congressional Research Service

ISBN:9781508432296

This report provides references to analytical reports on cybersecurity from CRS, other government agencies, trade associations, and interest groups...more details
Format:Paperback / softback  Pages:126

AUD $30.95

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Defense - Fy2015 Authorization and Appropriations

Congressional Research Service

ISBN:9781507868331

In contrast with the debate over the FY2014 defense budget, congressional action on the FY2015 Department of Defense (DOD) "base budget" (that is...more details
Format:Paperback / softback  Pages:96

AUD $31.95

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Defense - Fy2015 Authorization and Appropriations

Congressional Research Service

ISBN:9781512371642

In contrast with the debate over the FY2014 defense budget, congressional action on the FY2015 Department of Defense (DOD) budget request was not complicated by disputes over the total amount at issue. President Obama's FY2015 DOD budget request...more details
Format:Paperback / softback  Pages:96

AUD $31.95

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Department of Homeland Security - Fy2015 Appropriations

Congressional Research Service

ISBN:9781512309058

This report analyzes the FY2015 appropriations for the Department of Homeland Security (DHS). While this report makes note of many budgetary resources provided to DHS...more details
Format:Paperback / softback  Pages:112

AUD $31.95

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Department of Housing and Urban Development - Fy2015 Appropriations

Congressional Research Service

ISBN:9781508603610

In FY2015, the Department of Housing and Urban Development was funded as part of the FY2015 Consolidated and Further Continuing Appropriations Act (P.L. 113-235)...more details
Format:Paperback / softback  Pages:28

AUD $30.95

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Discretionary Budget Authority by Subfunction - An Overview

Congressional Research Service

ISBN:9781508602972

This report provides a graphical overview of historical trends in discretionary budget authority (BA) from FY1976 through FY2014, preliminary estimates for FY2015 spending...more details
Format:Paperback / softback  Pages:36

AUD $30.95

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Discretionary Spending Under the Affordable Care ACT (ACA)

Congressional Research Service

ISBN:9781508610540

The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (Affordable Care Act, or ACA) reauthorized funding for numerous existing discretionary grant programs administered by the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS). The ACA also created many new discretionary grant programs and provided for each an authorization of appropriations. Generally...more details
Format:Paperback / softback  Pages:54

AUD $31.95

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DNA Testing in Criminal Justice - Background, Current Law, and Grants

Congressional Research Service

ISBN:9781508432302

Deoxyribonucleic acid, or DNA, is the fundamental building block for an individual's entire genetic makeup. DNA is a powerful tool for law enforcement investigations because each person's DNA is different from that of every other individual (except for identical twins). DNA can be extracted from a number of sources...more details
Format:Paperback / softback  Pages:26

AUD $30.95

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Ebola - Selected Legal Issues

Congressional Research Service

ISBN:9781512249965

Several West African countries are currently grappling with an unprecedented outbreak of Ebola virus disease (EVD). Here in the United States...more details
Format:Paperback / softback  Pages:30

AUD $27.95

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Energy and Water Development - Fy2015 Appropriations

Congressional Research Service

ISBN:9781508432845

The Energy and Water Development appropriations bill provides funding for civil works projects of the Army Corps of Engineers (Corps), for the Department of the Interior's Bureau of Reclamation (Reclamation)...more details
Format:Paperback / softback  Pages:82

AUD $30.95

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Energy Tax Policy - Issues in the 114th Congress

Congressional Research Service

ISBN:9781507735930

A number of energy tax provisions expired at the end of 2014. Expired provisions include those that support renewable electricity (the production tax credit (PTC))...more details
Format:Paperback / softback  Pages:32

AUD $31.95

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Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) - Fy2015 Appropriations

Congressional Research Service

ISBN:9781508603573

Enacted on December 16, 2014, Title II of Division F of the Consolidated and Further Continuing Appropriations Act, 2015 (P.L. 113-235; H.R. 83) provided $8.14 billion for the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for FY2015. The act appropriated funding for the full fiscal year through September 30...more details
Format:Paperback / softback  Pages:32

AUD $30.95

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EPA and the Army Corps' Proposed Rule to Define Waters of the United States

Congressional Research Service

ISBN:9781508602897

On March 25, 2014, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (Corps) jointly announced a proposed rule defining the scope of waters protected under the Clean Water Act (CWA)...more details
Format:Paperback / softback  Pages:28

AUD $30.95

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Evaluating the Past Performance of Federal Contractors - Legal Requirements and Issues

Congressional Research Service

ISBN:9781508601951

Poor performance under a federal contract can have immediate consequences for contractors, who could be denied award or incentive fees, required to pay damages...more details
Format:Paperback / softback  Pages:26

AUD $30.95

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Executive Discretion as to Immigration - Legal Overview

Congressional Research Service

ISBN:9781512371475

President Obama announced in June 2014 that he would seek "to fix as much of our immigration system as I can on my own" through administrative action. Although the Obama Administration has not yet announced the specific immigration actions it intends to take...more details
Format:Paperback / softback  Pages:30

AUD $27.95

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Export-Import Bank Reauthorization - Frequently Asked Questions

Congressional Research Service

ISBN:9781508640462

The Export-Import Bank of the United States (Ex-Im Bank or the Bank), a wholly owned federal government corporation, is the official export credit agency (ECA) of the U...more details
Format:Paperback / softback  Pages:62

AUD $31.95

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Federal Proposals to Tax Marijuana - An Economic Analysis

Congressional Research Service

ISBN:9781512371598

The combination of state policy and general public opinion favoring the legalizing of marijuana has led some in Congress to advocate for legalization and taxation of marijuana at the federal level...more details
Format:Paperback / softback  Pages:40

AUD $25.95

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Federal Research and Development Funding - Fy2015

Congressional Research Service

ISBN:9781508432838

President Obama's budget request for FY2015 included $135.352 billion for research and development (R&D), a $1.670 billion (1.2%) increase from the FY2014 level of $133.682 billion. Funding for R&D is concentrated in a few departments and agencies. Under President Obama's FY2015 budget request...more details
Format:Paperback / softback  Pages:82

AUD $30.95

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Federal Student Loan Forgiveness and Loan Repayment Programs

Congressional Research Service

ISBN:9781508686347

Student loan forgiveness and loan repayment programs provide borrowers a means of having all or part of their student loan debt forgiven or repaid in exchange for work or service in specific fields or professions or following a prolonged period during which their student loan debt burden is high relative to their income...more details
Format:Paperback / softback  Pages:148

AUD $25.95

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Fema's Disaster Declaration Process - A Primer

Congressional Research Service

ISBN:9781512371567

The Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act (referred to as the Stafford Act-42 U.S.C. 5721 et seq.) authorizes the President to issue "major disaster" or "emergency" declarations before or after catastrophes occur. Emergency declarations trigger aid that protects property...more details
Format:Paperback / softback  Pages:40

AUD $25.95

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FHA Single-Family Mortgage Insurance - Financial Status of the Mutual Mortgage Insurance Fund (MMI Fund)

Congressional Research Service

ISBN:9781507868423

The Federal Housing Administration (FHA) insures private lenders against losses on home mortgages made to borrowers that meet certain eligibility criteria. If the borrower defaults-that is...more details
Format:Paperback / softback  Pages:28

AUD $31.95

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FHA Single-Family Mortgage Insurance - Recent Policy Changes and Proposed Legislation

Congressional Research Service

ISBN:9781507868355

The Federal Housing Administration (FHA), an agency of the Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD), insures private mortgage lenders against losses on eligible mortgages. If a borrower defaults on an FHA-insured mortgage...more details
Format:Paperback / softback  Pages:26

AUD $31.95

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Food Safety Issues for the 114th Congress

Congressional Research Service

ISBN:9781507735992

Congress passed comprehensive food safety legislation in December 2010 (FDA Food Safety Modernization Act (FSMA), P.L. 111-353), representing the largest expansion and overhaul of U.S. food safety authorities since the 1930s. FSMA greatly expanded food safety oversight authority at the Food and Drug Administration (FDA)...more details
Format:Paperback / softback  Pages:28

AUD $30.95

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Food Safety Issues for the 114th Congress

Congressional Research Service

ISBN:9781508602941

Congress passed comprehensive food safety legislation in December 2010 (FDA Food Safety Modernization Act [FSMA], P.L. 111-353), representing the largest expansion and overhaul of U.S. food safety authorities since the 1930s. FSMA greatly expanded food safety oversight authority at the Food and Drug Administration (FDA)...more details
Format:Paperback / softback  Pages:30

AUD $30.95

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Fy2015 National Defense Authorization ACT - Selected Military Personnel Issues

Congressional Research Service

ISBN:9781512249750

Military personnel issues typically generate significant interest from many Members of Congress and their staffs. Ongoing operations in Afghanistan...more details
Format:Paperback / softback  Pages:42

AUD $25.95

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Gao Bid Protests - An Overview of Time Frames and Procedures

Congressional Research Service

ISBN:9781512378641

For purposes of federal law, a bid protest involves a written objection to the conduct of government agencies in acquiring supplies and services for their direct use or benefit...more details
Format:Paperback / softback  Pages:28

AUD $31.95

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Gun Control Legislation in the 113th Congress

Congressional Research Service

ISBN:9781507735978

The December 2012 Newtown, CT, tragedy, along with other mass shootings in Aurora, CO, and Tucson, AZ, restarted the national gun control debate in the 113th Congress. The Senate considered a range of legislative proposals...more details
Format:Paperback / softback  Pages:48

AUD $31.95

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Hemp as an Agricultural Commodity

Congressional Research Service

ISBN:9781508433378

Industrial hemp is an agricultural commodity that is cultivated for use in the production of a wide range of products, including foods and beverages...more details
Format:Paperback / softback  Pages:34

AUD $30.95

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House Committee Funding Requests and Authorizations, 104th-113th Congresses

Congressional Research Service

ISBN:9781507870020

Pursuant to House Rule X, clause 6, the Committee on House Administration reports an omnibus, biennial "primary expense resolution" to cover the expenses of each standing and select committee...more details
Format:Paperback / softback  Pages:26

AUD $31.95

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House Committee Funding Requests and Authorizations, 104th-113th Congresses

Congressional Research Service

ISBN:9781508433361

Pursuant to House Rule X, clause 6, the Committee on House Administration reports an omnibus, biennial "primary expense resolution" to cover the expenses of each standing and select committee...more details
Format:Paperback / softback  Pages:26

AUD $30.95

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House Committee on Ethics - A Brief History of Its Evolution and Jurisdiction

Congressional Research Service

ISBN:9781508602033

The United States Constitution (Article 1, Section 5, clause 1) provides each House of Congress with the sole authority to establish rules, judge membership requirements...more details
Format:Paperback / softback  Pages:32

AUD $30.95

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House Office of Congressional Ethics - History, Authority, and Procedures

Congressional Research Service

ISBN:9781507868089

The House Office of Congressional Ethics (OCE) was established on March 11, 2008, with the passage of H.Res. 895. It was reauthorized by the House as part of the rules package (H.Res. 5) adopted by the 114th Congress on January 6...more details
Format:Paperback / softback  Pages:34

AUD $31.95

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Instances of Use of United States Armed Forces Abroad, 1798-2014

Congressional Research Service

ISBN:9781508687023

This report lists hundreds of instances in which the United States has used its Armed Forces abroad in situations of military conflict or potential conflict or for other than normal peacetime purposes. It was compiled in part from various older lists and is intended primarily to provide a rough survey of past U.S. military ventures abroad...more details
Format:Paperback / softback  Pages:40

AUD $31.95

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Institutional Eligibility for Participation in Title IV Student Financial Aid Programs

Congressional Research Service

ISBN:9781507735961

Title IV of the Higher Education Act (HEA) authorizes programs that provide financial assistance to students to assist them in obtaining a postsecondary education at certain institutions of higher education (IHEs). These IHEs include public...more details
Format:Paperback / softback  Pages:38

AUD $31.95

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Intelligence Authorization Legislation for Fy2014 and Fy2015 - Provisions, Status, Intelligence Community Framework

Congressional Research Service

ISBN:9781507736678

Two Intelligence Authorization Acts (IAAs) were passed in 2014. The IAA for Fiscal Year (FY) 2014 (P.L. 113-126) was passed in July and an IAA for FY2015 (P...more details
Format:Paperback / softback  Pages:38

AUD $31.95

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Intelligence Authorization Legislation for Fy2014 and Fy2015 - Provisions, Status, Intelligence Community Framework

Congressional Research Service

ISBN:9781512309010

An Intelligence Authorization Act (IAA) for Fiscal Years (FY) 2014 and 2015 (H.R. 4681) was considered in May 2014 and passed by the House but not by the Senate. Instead...more details
Format:Paperback / softback  Pages:32

AUD $31.95

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International Law and Agreements - Their Effect Upon U.S. Law

Congressional Research Service

ISBN:9781508604617

This report provides an introduction to the roles that international law and agreements play in the United States. International law is derived from two primary sources-international agreements and customary practice. Under the U.S. legal system...more details
Format:Paperback / softback  Pages:28

AUD $30.95

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Internet Governance and the Domain Name System - Issues for Congress

Congressional Research Service

ISBN:9781508602965

The Internet is often described as a "network of networks" because it is not a single physical entity, but hundreds of thousands of interconnected networks linking hundreds of millions of computers around the world. As such...more details
Format:Paperback / softback  Pages:34

AUD $30.95

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Iran - U.S. Concerns and Policy Responses

Congressional Research Service

ISBN:9781507870037

Since the Islamic Revolution in Iran in 1979, a priority of U.S. policy has been to reduce the perceived threat posed by Iran to a broad range of U.S. interests. In 2014...more details
Format:Paperback / softback  Pages:76

AUD $31.95

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Iran Sanctions

Congressional Research Service

ISBN:9781507869987

Sanctions have constricted Iran's ability to procure equipment for its nuclear and missile programs and to import advanced conventional weaponry. However...more details
Format:Paperback / softback  Pages:82

AUD $31.95

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Iraq - Politics, Governance, and Human Rights

Congressional Research Service

ISBN:9781507869970

Since the 2011 U.S. military withdrawal from Iraq, sectarian and ethnic divisions have reemerged to fuel a major challenge to Iraq's stability and to Iraq's non-Muslim minority communities...more details
Format:Paperback / softback  Pages:50

AUD $31.95

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Issues in the Reauthorization of the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA)

Congressional Research Service

ISBN:9781507736654

The funding authorization for the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), included in the FAA Modernization and Reform Act of 2012 (P.L. 112-95)...more details
Format:Paperback / softback  Pages:74

AUD $31.95

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Issues in the Reauthorization of the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA)

Congressional Research Service

ISBN:9781507868324

The funding authorization for the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), included in the FAA Modernization and Reform Act of 2012 (P.L. 112-95)...more details
Format:Paperback / softback  Pages:74

AUD $31.95

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Kuwait - Governance, Security, and U.S. Policy

Congressional Research Service

ISBN:9781508433330

Kuwait has been pivotal to U.S. efforts to secure the Persian Gulf region because of its willingness to cooperate with U.S. strategy and military operations in the region...more details
Format:Paperback / softback  Pages:32

AUD $30.95

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Kuwait - Governance, Security, and U.S. Policy

Congressional Research Service

ISBN:9781512309768

Kuwait has been pivotal to U.S. efforts to secure the Persian Gulf region because of its willingness to cooperate with U.S. strategy and military operations in the region...more details
Format:Paperback / softback  Pages:32

AUD $31.95

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Latin America - Terrorism Issues

Congressional Research Service

ISBN:9781511410748

U.S. attention to terrorism in Latin America intensified in the aftermath of the September 2001 terrorist attacks on New York and Washington...more details
Format:Paperback / softback  Pages:40

AUD $25.95

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Latin America and the Caribbean - Key Issues for the 114th Congress

Congressional Research Service

ISBN:9781507870051

Geographic proximity has ensured strong linkages between the United States and the Latin American and Caribbean region, with diverse U.S. interests...more details
Format:Paperback / softback  Pages:38

AUD $31.95

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Legal Services Corporation - Background and Funding

Congressional Research Service

ISBN:9781508604587

The Legal Services Corporation (LSC) is a private, nonprofit, federally funded corporation that helps provide legal assistance to low-income people in civil (i.e....more details
Format:Paperback / softback  Pages:26

AUD $30.95

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Legislative Actions to Repeal, Defund, or Delay the Affordable Care ACT

Congressional Research Service

ISBN:9781508432869

Congress remains deeply divided over implementation of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA), the health reform law enacted in March 2010.1 Since the ACA's enactment...more details
Format:Paperback / softback  Pages:28

AUD $30.95

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Legislative Actions to Repeal, Defund, or Delay the Affordable Care ACT

Congressional Research Service

ISBN:9781508602903

Congress remains deeply divided over implementation of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA), the health reform law enacted in March 2010.1 Since the ACA's enactment...more details
Format:Paperback / softback  Pages:30

AUD $30.95

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Legislative Branch - Fy2015 Appropriations

Congressional Research Service

ISBN:9781507736715

The legislative branch appropriations bill provides funding for the Senate; House of Representatives; Joint Items; Capitol Police; Office of Compliance; Congressional Budget Office (CBO); Architect of the Capitol (AOC); Library of Congress (LOC)...more details
Format:Paperback / softback  Pages:30

AUD $31.95

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Liheap - Program and Funding

Congressional Research Service

ISBN:9781507870044

The Low Income Home Energy Assistance Program (LIHEAP), established in 1981 as part of the Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act (P.L. 97-35), is a program through which the federal government makes annual grants to states...more details
Format:Paperback / softback  Pages:40

AUD $31.95

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Mandatory Minimum Sentencing Legislation in the 113th Congress

Congressional Research Service

ISBN:9781507736746

Defendants convicted of violating certain federal criminal laws face the prospect of mandatory minimum terms of imprisonment. Bills offered during the 113th Congress would have supplemented...more details
Format:Paperback / softback  Pages:24

AUD $30.95

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Manufacturing Nuclear Weapon

Congressional Research Service

ISBN:9781508639824

A "pit" is the plutonium "trigger" of a thermonuclear weapon. During the Cold War, the Rocky Flat Plant made up to 2,000 pits per year, but ceased operations in 1989....more details
Format:Paperback / softback  Pages:38

AUD $25.95

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Medal of Honor - History and Issues

Congressional Research Service

ISBN:9781511420914

The Medal of Honor is the nation's highest military award for bravery. It is awarded by the President in the name of Congress. For this reason...more details
Format:Paperback / softback  Pages:30

AUD $25.95

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Medal of Honor Recipients - 1979-2014

Congressional Research Service

ISBN:9781508610755

The Medal of Honor (MOH) is the nation's highest award for military valor. It is presented by the President in the name of Congress and is often called the Congressional Medal of Honor. Since its first presentation in 1863...more details
Format:Paperback / softback  Pages:78

AUD $27.95

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Medical Loss Ratio Requirements Under the Patient Protection and Affordable Care ACT (ACA) - Issues for Congress

Congressional Research Service

ISBN:9781507868003

The 2010 Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA, P.L. 111-148) requires certain health insurers to provide consumer rebates if they do not meet a set financial target known as a medical loss ratio (MLR). At its most basic...more details
Format:Paperback / softback  Pages:30

AUD $31.95

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Medicare Financing

Congressional Research Service

ISBN:9781503005716

Medicare is the nation's health insurance program for individuals aged 65 and over and certain disabled persons. Medicare consists of four distinct parts: Part A...more details
Format:Paperback / softback  Pages:40

AUD $31.95

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Mexico's Oil and Gas Sector - Background, Reform Efforts, and Implications for the United States

Congressional Research Service

ISBN:9781507868409

The future of oil and natural gas production in Mexico is of importance for both Mexico's economic growth, as well as for U.S. energy security...more details
Format:Paperback / softback  Pages:26

AUD $31.95

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Monetary Policy and the Federal Reserve - Current Policy and Conditions

Congressional Research Service

ISBN:9781508604631

The Federal Reserve (the Fed) defines monetary policy as its actions to influence the availability and cost of money and credit. Because the expectations of market participants play an important role in determining prices and economic growth...more details
Format:Paperback / softback  Pages:26

AUD $30.95

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Monuments and Memorials Authorized Under the Commemorative Works ACT in the District of Columbia - Current Development of In-Progress and Lapsed Works

Congressional Research Service

ISBN:9781507736692

Under the Commemorative Works Act (CWA) of 1986, Congress may authorize commemorative works to be placed in the District of Columbia or its environs. Once a commemorative work has been authorized...more details
Format:Paperback / softback  Pages:28

AUD $31.95

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Multiyear Procurement (Myp) and Block Buy Contracting in Defense Acquisition - Background and Issues for Congress

Congressional Research Service

ISBN:9781508708780

Multiyear procurement (MYP) and block buy contracting (BBC) are special contracting mechanisms that Congress permits the Department of Defense (DOD) to use for a limited number of defense acquisition programs. Compared to the standard or default approach of annual contracting...more details
Format:Paperback / softback  Pages:32

AUD $25.95

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National Security Letters - Proposals in the 113th Congress

Congressional Research Service

ISBN:9781507736739

A National Security Letter (NSL) is roughly comparable to an administrative subpoena. Various intelligence agencies use NSLs to demand certain customer information from communications providers...more details
Format:Paperback / softback  Pages:38

AUD $31.95

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Natural Gas for Cars and Trucks - Options and Challenges

Congressional Research Service

ISBN:9781512308938

The increase in domestic supplies of natural gas has raised new interest in expanding its use in the transportation sector. This report considers issues related to wider use of natural gas as a fuel in passenger cars and commercial vehicles....more details
Format:Paperback / softback  Pages:28

AUD $31.95

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Navy Littoral Combat Ship (Lcs)/Frigate Program - Background and Issues for Congress

Congressional Research Service

ISBN:9781508433347

The Navy's Littoral Combat Ship (LCS)/Frigate program is a program to procure 52 LCSs and frigates. The first LCS was funded in FY2005, and a total of 23 have been funded through FY2015. The Navy's proposed FY2016 budget requests $1...more details
Format:Paperback / softback  Pages:44

AUD $30.95

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Navy Shipboard Lasers for Surface, Air, and Missile Defense - Background and Issues for Congress

Congressional Research Service

ISBN:9781508700326

Department of Defense (DOD) development work on high-energy military lasers, which has been underway for decades, has reached the point where lasers capable of countering certain surface and air targets at ranges of about a mile could be made ready for installation on Navy surface ships over the next few years. More powerful shipboard lasers...more details
Format:Paperback / softback  Pages:60

AUD $31.95

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Navy Virginia (Ssn-774) Class Attack Submarine Procurement - Background and Issues for Congress

Congressional Research Service

ISBN:9781508709138

The Navy has been procuring Virginia (SSN-774) class nuclear-powered attack submarines since FY1998. The two Virginia-class boats requested for procurement in FY2015 are to be the 21st and 22nd boats in the class...more details
Format:Paperback / softback  Pages:28

AUD $24.95

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North Korea - U.S. Relations, Nuclear Diplomacy, and Internal Situation

Congressional Research Service

ISBN:9781512273342

North Korea has presented one of the most vexing and persistent problems in U.S. foreign policy in the post-Cold War period. The United States has never had formal diplomatic relations with the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (the official name for North Korea)...more details
Format:Paperback / softback  Pages:34

AUD $21.95

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Overview and Issues for Implementation of the Federal Cloud Computing Initiative - Implications for Federal Information Technology Reform Management

Congressional Research Service

ISBN:9781507735985

Cloud computing is a new name for an old concept: the delivery of computing services from a remote location, analogous to the way electricity...more details
Format:Paperback / softback  Pages:28

AUD $31.95

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Overview and Issues for Implementation of the Federal Cloud Computing Initiative - Implications for Federal Information Technology Reform Management

Congressional Research Service

ISBN:9781508602927

Cloud computing is a new name for an old concept: the delivery of computing services from a remote location, analogous to the way electricity...more details
Format:Paperback / softback  Pages:28

AUD $30.95

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Overview of the Federal Tax System

Congressional Research Service

ISBN:9781512309713

The major sources of federal tax revenue are individual income taxes, Social Security and other payroll taxes, corporate income taxes, excise taxes...more details
Format:Paperback / softback  Pages:30

AUD $31.95

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P.L. 111-3 - The Children's Health Insurance Program Reauthorization Act of 2009

Congressional Research Service

ISBN:9781511458757

The Children's Health Insurance Program Reauthorization Act of 2009 (H.R. 2, CHIPRA) was first passed in the House on January 14, 2009, and an amended version was passed in the Senate on January 29...more details
Format:Paperback / softback  Pages:38

AUD $25.95

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Peace Talks in Colombia

Congressional Research Service

ISBN:9781508602910

In August 2012, Colombian President Juan Manuel Santos announced that the government was engaged in exploratory peace talks with the violent leftist insurgent group...more details
Format:Paperback / softback  Pages:40

AUD $30.95

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Pilt (Payments in Lieu of Taxes) - Somewhat Simplified

Congressional Research Service

ISBN:9781512273380

Regulatory analytical requirements (e.g., cost-benefit and cost-effectiveness analysis) have been established incrementally during the last 40 to 50 years through a series of presidential and congressional initiatives. The current set of requirements includes Executive Order 12866 and Office of Management and Budget (OMB) Circular A-4...more details
Format:Paperback / softback  Pages:30

AUD $25.95

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Pilt (Payments in Lieu of Taxes) - Somewhat Simplified

Congressional Research Service

ISBN:9781512273458

The federal budget is central to Congress's ability to exercise its "power of the purse." Each fiscal year Congress and the President undertake a variety of steps intended to set levels of spending and revenue and to make policy decisions...more details
Format:Paperback / softback  Pages:30

AUD $31.95

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Pilt (Payments in Lieu of Taxes) - Somewhat Simplified

Congressional Research Service

ISBN:9781512273489

The 113th Congress continues to face numerous issues related to unemployment insurance programs: Unemployment Compensation (UC), the temporary...more details
Format:Paperback / softback  Pages:30

AUD $31.95

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Poverty in the United States - 2013

Congressional Research Service

ISBN:9781507870013

In 2013, 45.3 million people were counted as poor in the United States under the official poverty measure-a number statistically unchanged from the 46.5 million people estimated as poor in 2012. The poverty rate...more details
Format:Paperback / softback  Pages:82

AUD $31.95

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Presidential Appointments to Full-Time Positions on Regulatory and Other Collegial Boards and Commissions, 112th Congress

Congressional Research Service

ISBN:9781508433408

The President makes appointments to positions within the federal government, either using authorities granted to the President alone or with the advice and consent of the Senate...more details
Format:Paperback / softback  Pages:48

AUD $30.95

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Proposed Train and Equip Authorities for Syria - In Brief

Congressional Research Service

ISBN:9781508610991

The FY2015 continuing appropriations resolution (H.J.Res. 124, P.L. 113-164, CR), enacted on September 19, 2014, authorizes the Department of Defense through December 11...more details
Format:Paperback / softback  Pages:30

AUD $31.95

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Public Trust and Law Enforcement-A Brief Discussion for Policy Makers

Congressional Research Service

ISBN:9781508604662

Recent events involving conflict between the police and citizens have generated interest in what role Congress could play in facilitating efforts to build trust between law enforcement and the people they serve while promoting effective crime reduction...more details
Format:Paperback / softback  Pages:28

AUD $30.95

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Recent Developments in the Job Corps Program - Frequently Asked Questions

Congressional Research Service

ISBN:9781507868348

The Job Corps program is a job training and academic program for youth ages 16 to 24 who are low-income and have a barrier to employment, such as having dropped out of high school...more details
Format:Paperback / softback  Pages:32

AUD $31.95

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Recent Developments in the Job Corps Program - Frequently Asked Questions

Congressional Research Service

ISBN:9781508432821

The Job Corps program is a job training and academic program for youth ages 16 to 24 who are low-income and have a barrier to employment, such as having dropped out of high school...more details
Format:Paperback / softback  Pages:32

AUD $30.95

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Russian Compliance with the Intermediate Range Nuclear Forces (INF) Treaty - Background and Issues for Congress

Congressional Research Service

ISBN:9781512249996

The United States and Soviet Union signed the Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces (INF) Treaty in December 1987. Negotiations on this treaty were the result of a "dual-track" decision taken by NATO in 1979. At that time...more details
Format:Paperback / softback  Pages:36

AUD $27.95

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Sba Small Business Investment Company Program

Congressional Research Service

ISBN:9781503005693

The Small Business Administration's (SBA's) Small Business Investment Company (SBIC) program is designed to enhance small business access to venture capital by stimulating and supplementing "the flow of private equity capital and long-term loan funds which small-business concerns need for the sound financing of their business operations and for their growth...more details
Format:Paperback / softback  Pages:44

AUD $31.95

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Securing U.S. Diplomatic Facilities and Personnel Abroad - Legislative and Executive Branch Initiatives

Congressional Research Service

ISBN:9781512308648

The September 11, 2012, attack on U.S. facilities in Benghazi, Libya, prompted sustained congressional attention on the specific circumstances of the events in question...more details
Format:Paperback / softback  Pages:32

AUD $25.95

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Security Assistance Reform - ?Section 1206? Background and Issues for Congress

Congressional Research Service

ISBN:9781512378559

Section 1206 of the National Defense Authorization Act (NDAA) for Fiscal Year 2006, as amended and regularly extended, provides the Secretary of Defense with authority to train and equip foreign military forces for two specified purposes-counterterrorism and stability operations-and foreign security forces for counterterrorism operations...more details
Format:Paperback / softback  Pages:32

AUD $31.95

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Sex Trafficking of Children in the United States - Overview and Issues for Congress

Congressional Research Service

ISBN:9781507868058

The trafficking of individuals within U.S borders is commonly referred to as domestic human trafficking, and it occurs in every state of the nation. One form of domestic human trafficking is sex trafficking. Research indicates that most victims of sex trafficking into and within the United States are women and children...more details
Format:Paperback / softback  Pages:54

AUD $31.95

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Sexual Violence at Institutions of Higher Education

Congressional Research Service

ISBN:9781503006812

In recent years, a number of high-profile incidents of sexual violence at institutions of higher education (IHEs) have heightened congressional and administration scrutiny of the policies and procedures that IHEs currently have in place to address campus sexual violence and how these policies and procedures can be improved...more details
Format:Paperback / softback  Pages:30

AUD $31.95

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Sexual Violence at Institutions of Higher Education

Congressional Research Service

ISBN:9781508610717

In recent years, a number of high-profile incidents of sexual violence at institutions of higher education (IHEs) have heightened congressional and administration scrutiny of the policies and procedures that IHEs currently have in place to address campus sexual violence and how these policies and procedures can be improved...more details
Format:Paperback / softback  Pages:32

AUD $25.95

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Shutdown of the Federal Government - Causes, Processes, and Effects

Congressional Research Service

ISBN:9781508685852

When federal agencies and programs lack funding after the expiration of full-year or interim appropriations, the agencies and programs experience a funding gap. If funding does not resume in time to continue government operations...more details
Format:Paperback / softback  Pages:46

AUD $25.95

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Small Business - Access to Capital and Job Creation

Congressional Research Service

ISBN:9781507868065

The U.S. Small Business Administration (SBA) administers several programs to support small businesses, including loan guaranty and venture capital programs to enhance small business access to capital; contracting programs to increase small business opportunities in federal contracting; direct loan programs for businesses...more details
Format:Paperback / softback  Pages:34

AUD $31.95

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Small Business - Access to Capital and Job Creation

Congressional Research Service

ISBN:9781508432364

The U.S. Small Business Administration (SBA) administers several programs to support small businesses, including loan guaranty and venture capital programs to enhance small business access to capital; contracting programs to increase small business opportunities in federal contracting; direct loan programs for businesses...more details
Format:Paperback / softback  Pages:34

AUD $30.95

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Small Business Administration (Sba) Funding - Overview and Recent Trends

Congressional Research Service

ISBN:9781508433446

This report examines the Small Business Administration's (SBA's) appropriations (new budget authority, minus rescissions and sequestration) over time...more details
Format:Paperback / softback  Pages:48

AUD $30.95

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Small Business Administration - A Primer on Programs and Funding

Congressional Research Service

ISBN:9781508433354

The Small Business Administration (SBA) administers several types of programs to support small businesses, including loan guaranty and venture capital programs to enhance small business access to capital; contracting programs to increase small business opportunities in federal contracting; direct loan programs for businesses...more details
Format:Paperback / softback  Pages:36

AUD $30.95

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Small Business Administration 504/CDC Loan Guaranty Program

Congressional Research Service

ISBN:9781508601975

The Small Business Administration (SBA) administers programs to support small businesses, including several loan guaranty programs designed to encourage lenders to provide loans to small businesses "that might not otherwise obtain financing on reasonable terms and conditions...more details
Format:Paperback / softback  Pages:36

AUD $30.95

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Small Business Administration 7(a) Loan Guaranty Program

Congressional Research Service

ISBN:9781503005723

The Small Business Administration (SBA) administers several programs to support small businesses, including loan guaranty programs designed to encourage lenders to provide loans to small businesses "that might not otherwise obtain financing on reasonable terms and conditions...more details
Format:Paperback / softback  Pages:44

AUD $31.95

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Small Business Administration 7(a) Loan Guaranty Program

Congressional Research Service

ISBN:9781508601982

The Small Business Administration (SBA) administers several programs to support small businesses, including loan guaranty programs designed to encourage lenders to provide loans to small businesses "that might not otherwise obtain financing on reasonable terms and conditions...more details
Format:Paperback / softback  Pages:44

AUD $30.95

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Small Business Administration Hubzone Program

Congressional Research Service

ISBN:9781508601968

The Small Business Administration (SBA) administers several programs to support small businesses, including the Historically Underutilized Business Zone Empowerment Contracting (HUBZone) program...more details
Format:Paperback / softback  Pages:36

AUD $30.95

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Small Business Administration Trade and Export Promotion Programs

Congressional Research Service

ISBN:9781508432876

According to Census Bureau data, approximately 1% of small businesses in the United States currently export. With roughly three-quarters of world purchasing power and almost 95% of world consumers living outside U.S. borders...more details
Format:Paperback / softback  Pages:26

AUD $30.95

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Small Business Management and Technical Assistance Training Programs

Congressional Research Service

ISBN:9781508432333

The Small Business Administration (SBA) has provided technical and managerial assistance "to small-business concerns, by advising and counseling on matters in connection with government procurement and on policies...more details
Format:Paperback / softback  Pages:42

AUD $30.95

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Small Business Size Standards - A Historical Analysis of Contemporary Issues

Congressional Research Service

ISBN:9781508432371

Small business size standards are of congressional interest because the standards determine eligibility for receiving Small Business Administration (SBA) assistance as well as federal contracting and tax preferences. Although there is bipartisan agreement that the nation's small businesses play an important role in the American economy...more details
Format:Paperback / softback  Pages:42

AUD $30.95

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State Marijuana Legalization Initiatives - Implications for Federal Law Enforcement

Congressional Research Service

ISBN:9781512391909

Marijuana is the most commonly used illicit drug in the United States. In 2013, an estimated 19.8 million individuals in the United States aged 12 or older (7.5% of this population) had used marijuana in the past month. While reported marijuana use is similar to that in 2012...more details
Format:Paperback / softback  Pages:28

AUD $31.95

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State Minimum Wages - An Overview

Congressional Research Service

ISBN:9781512308976

The Fair Labor Standards Act (FLSA), enacted in 1938, is the federal legislation that establishes the general minimum wage that must be paid to all covered workers. While the FLSA mandates broad minimum wage coverage...more details
Format:Paperback / softback  Pages:40

AUD $31.95

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State, Foreign Operations, and Related Programs - Fy2015 Budget and Appropriations

Congressional Research Service

ISBN:9781507736708

On December 16, 2014, Congress presented the Consolidated and Further Continuing Appropriations Act, 2015 (H.R. 83), to the President, who signed it into law (P.L. 113-235) that same day. In Division J of that act...more details
Format:Paperback / softback  Pages:40

AUD $31.95

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Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (Snap) - A Primer on Eligibility and Benefits

Congressional Research Service

ISBN:9781503005686

The Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP), formerly called the Food Stamp Program, is designed primarily to increase the food purchasing power of eligible low-income households to help them buy a nutritionally adequate low-cost diet...more details
Format:Paperback / softback  Pages:26

AUD $31.95

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Taiwan - Major U.S. Arms Sales Since 1990

Congressional Research Service

ISBN:9781503006393

This report, updated through the 113th Congress, discusses U.S. security assistance to Taiwan (calling itself Republic of China (ROC)), including policy issues for Congress and legislation. Congress has oversight of the Taiwan Relations Act (TRA)...more details
Format:Paperback / softback  Pages:64

AUD $31.95

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Tax Deductions for Individuals - A Summary

Congressional Research Service

ISBN:9781508602958

Every tax filer has the option to claim deductions when filing their income tax return. Deductions serve four main purposes in the tax code: (1) to account for large...more details
Format:Paperback / softback  Pages:26

AUD $30.95

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Terrorism and Transnational Crime - Foreign Policy Issues for Congress

Congressional Research Service

ISBN:9781511458931

This report provides an overview of transnational security issues related to patterns of interaction among international terrorist and crime groups. In addition...more details
Format:Paperback / softback  Pages:40

AUD $25.95

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The Affordable Care ACT and Small Business - Economic Issues

Congressional Research Service

ISBN:9781507735954

The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA; P.L. 111-148 and P.L. 111-152) contains several provisions to encourage employer-sponsored health coverage...more details
Format:Paperback / softback  Pages:28

AUD $31.95

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The America Competes Acts - An Overview

Congressional Research Service

ISBN:9781507870068

Scientific and technological advancement played a central role in ensuring U.S. prosperity and power in the 20th century. From the first flight of the Wright brothers in 1903 to the creation of Google in the 1990s...more details
Format:Paperback / softback  Pages:28

AUD $31.95

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The Appointment Process for U.S. Circuit and District Court Nominations - An Overview

Congressional Research Service

ISBN:9781503006805

In recent decades, the process for appointing judges to the U.S. circuit courts of appeals and the U.S. district courts has been of continuing Senate interest. The responsibility for making these appointments is shared by the President and the Senate. Pursuant to the Constitution's Appointments Clause...more details
Format:Paperback / softback  Pages:48

AUD $31.95

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The Budget Control ACT and Trends in Discretionary Spending

Congressional Research Service

ISBN:9781512393750

Discretionary spending is provided and controlled through appropriations acts, which fund many of the activities commonly associated with such federal government functions as running executive branch agencies...more details
Format:Paperback / softback  Pages:48

AUD $31.95

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The Congressional Appropriations Process - An Introduction

Congressional Research Service

ISBN:9781512370799

Congress annually considers several appropriations measures, which provide discretionary funding for numerous activities-for example, national defense...more details
Format:Paperback / softback  Pages:28

AUD $31.95

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The Corporate Income Tax System - Overview and Options for Reform

Congressional Research Service

ISBN:9781512378795

Many economists and policy makers believe that the U.S. corporate tax system is in need of reform. There is, however, disagreement over why the corporate tax system needs to be reformed...more details
Format:Paperback / softback  Pages:40

AUD $25.95

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The Defense Production Act of 1950 - History, Authorities, and Reauthorization

Congressional Research Service

ISBN:9781508699750

The Defense Production Act (DPA) of 1950 (P.L. 81-774, 50 U.S.C. Appx 2061 et seq.), as amended, confers upon the President a broad set of authorities to influence domestic industry in the interest of national defense. The authorities can be used across the federal government to shape the domestic industrial base so that...more details
Format:Paperback / softback  Pages:44

AUD $25.95

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The Doctrine of Constitutional Avoidance - A Legal Overview

Congressional Research Service

ISBN:9781508640509

Article III of the Constitution established the judicial branch of the United States, staffing the branch with life-tenured and salary-protected judges. Amongst the powers of the federal judiciary is the power of "judicial review"-that is...more details
Format:Paperback / softback  Pages:34

AUD $25.95

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The Earned Income Tax Credit (Eitc) - An Overview

Congressional Research Service

ISBN:9781503006409

The Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC or EIC) began in 1975 as a temporary program to return a portion of the Social Security tax paid by lower-income taxpayers (the credit was...more details
Format:Paperback / softback  Pages:30

AUD $31.95

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The Earned Income Tax Credit (Eitc) - An Overview

Congressional Research Service

ISBN:9781512392487

The Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC) is a refundable tax credit available to eligible workers earning relatively low wages. Because the credit is refundable...more details
Format:Paperback / softback  Pages:30

AUD $31.95

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The Federal Acquisition Regulation (Far) - Answers to Frequently Asked Questions

Congressional Research Service

ISBN:9781508432883

The federal government is the largest buyer of goods and services in the world, and executive branch agencies-particularly the Department of Defense-make most of these purchases. Many (although not all) acquisitions by executive branch agencies are subject to the Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR)...more details
Format:Paperback / softback  Pages:34

AUD $30.95

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The Help America Vote ACT and Election Administration - Overview and Issues

Congressional Research Service

ISBN:9781512250442

The deadlocked November 2000 presidential election focused national attention on previously obscure details of election administration. Even before the U.S. Supreme Court had resolved the election in December...more details
Format:Paperback / softback  Pages:28

AUD $31.95

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The Higher Education ACT (Hea) - A Primer

Congressional Research Service

ISBN:9781507736722

The Higher Education Act of 1965 (HEA; P.L. 89-329) authorizes numerous federal aid programs that provide support to both individuals pursuing a postsecondary education and institutions of higher education (IHEs). Title IV of the HEA authorizes the federal government's major student aid programs...more details
Format:Paperback / softback  Pages:50

AUD $31.95

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The Islamic State Crisis and U.S. Policy

Congressional Research Service

ISBN:9781508432814

The Islamic State (IS, aka the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant, ISIL/ISIS) is a transnational Sunni Islamist insurgent and terrorist group that has expanded its control over areas of parts of Iraq and Syria since 2013...more details
Format:Paperback / softback  Pages:42

AUD $30.95

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The Islamic State Crisis and U.S. Policy

Congressional Research Service

ISBN:9781508603603

The Islamic State (IS, aka the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant, ISIL/ISIS) is a transnational Sunni Islamist insurgent and terrorist group that has expanded its control over areas of parts of Iraq and Syria since 2013...more details
Format:Paperback / softback  Pages:42

AUD $30.95

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The Islamic State Crisis and U.S. Policy

Congressional Research Service

ISBN:9781512371284

Congressional Research Service Summary The Islamic State is a transnational Sunni Islamist insurgent and terrorist group that has expanded its control over areas of parts of Iraq and Syria since 2013. It threatens the governments of both countries and potentially several other countries in the region...more details
Format:Paperback / softback  Pages:34

AUD $31.95

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The Medical Device Excise Tax - Economic Analysis

Congressional Research Service

ISBN:9781512273229

The 2.3% medical device tax imposed by the Affordable Care Act (ACA; P.L. 111-148) in 2010 was one of a number of additional revenue-raising provisions to finance health reform. This tax...more details
Format:Paperback / softback  Pages:34

AUD $31.95

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The National Institute of Standards and Technology - An Appropriations Overview

Congressional Research Service

ISBN:9781508604655

The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), a laboratory of the Department of Commerce, is mandated to provide technical services to facilitate the competitiveness of U...more details
Format:Paperback / softback  Pages:26

AUD $30.95

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The National Nanotechnology Initiative - Overview, Reauthorization, and Appropriations Issues

Congressional Research Service

ISBN:9781512250152

Nanotechnology-a term encompassing the science, engineering, and applications of submicron materials-involves the harnessing of unique physical...more details
Format:Paperback / softback  Pages:76

AUD $25.95

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The New Start Treaty - Central Limits and Key Provisions

Congressional Research Service

ISBN:9781508432340

The United States and Russia signed the New START Treaty on April 8, 2010. After more than 20 hearings, the U.S. Senate gave its advice and consent to ratification on December 22...more details
Format:Paperback / softback  Pages:42

AUD $30.95

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The Obama Administration?s November 2014 Immigration Initiatives - Questions and Answers

Congressional Research Service

ISBN:9781512309676

On November 20, 2014, President Obama delivered a televised address wherein he broadly described the steps that his administration is taking to "fix" what he has repeatedly described as a "broken immigration system." Following the President's address...more details
Format:Paperback / softback  Pages:28

AUD $31.95

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The Osh ACT - A Legal Overview

Congressional Research Service

ISBN:9781507736685

Through the Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970 ("OSH Act" or "act"), Congress sought a nationwide approach to regulating workplace accidents and injuries. The act authorizes the Secretary of Labor to create and enforce workplace safety standards. Additionally...more details
Format:Paperback / softback  Pages:30

AUD $31.95

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The Palestinians - Background and U.S. Relations

Congressional Research Service

ISBN:9781508605102

This report covers current issues in U.S.-Palestinian relations. It also contains an overview of Palestinian society and politics and descriptions of key Palestinian individuals and groups-chiefly the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO)...more details
Format:Paperback / softback  Pages:50

AUD $30.95

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The Presidential Libraries ACT and the Establishment of Presidential Libraries

Congressional Research Service

ISBN:9781508432319

The Presidential Libraries Act (P.L. 84-373; 69 Stat. 695), as originally enacted in 1955, sought to create a system of government "preservation and administration ... of papers and other historical materials of any President or former President of the United States." Pursuant to the law...more details
Format:Paperback / softback  Pages:38

AUD $30.95

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The Role of Local Food Systems in U.S. Farm Policy

Congressional Research Service

ISBN:9781511411431

Sales of locally produced foods comprise a small but growing part of U.S. agricultural sales. USDA estimates that farm-level value of local food sales totaled about $4.8 billion in 2008...more details
Format:Paperback / softback  Pages:68

AUD $24.95

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The Section 179 and Bonus Depreciation Expensing Allowances - Current Law and Issues for the 114th Congress

Congressional Research Service

ISBN:9781508604624

Expensing is the most accelerated form of depreciation for tax purposes. Section 179 of the Internal Revenue Code allows a taxpayer to expense (or deduct as a current expense rather than as a capital expense) up to $25...more details
Format:Paperback / softback  Pages:24

AUD $30.95

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The Target and Other Financial Data Breaches - Frequently Asked Questions

Congressional Research Service

ISBN:9781508432852

In November and December of 2013, cybercriminals breached the data security of Target, one of the largest U.S. retail chains, stealing the personal and financial information of millions of customers. On December 19...more details
Format:Paperback / softback  Pages:40

AUD $30.95

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The Tibetan Policy Act of 2002 - Background and Implementation

Congressional Research Service

ISBN:9781512371352

The Tibetan Policy Act of 2002 (TPA) is a core legislative measure guiding U.S. policy toward Tibet. Its stated purpose is "to support the aspirations of the Tibetan people to safeguard their distinct identity." Among other provisions...more details
Format:Paperback / softback  Pages:44

AUD $31.95

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The Trans-Pacific Partnership (Tpp) Negotiations and Issues for Congress

Congressional Research Service

ISBN:9781507868010

The Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) is a proposed regional free trade agreement (FTA) being negotiated among the United States, Australia, Brunei...more details
Format:Paperback / softback  Pages:60

AUD $31.95

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The Trans-Pacific Partnership (Tpp) Negotiations and Issues for Congress

Congressional Research Service

ISBN:9781512309829

The Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) is a proposed regional free trade agreement (FTA) being negotiated among the United States, Australia, Brunei...more details
Format:Paperback / softback  Pages:62

AUD $29.95

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U.S. and International Health Responses to the Ebola Outbreak in West Africa

Congressional Research Service

ISBN:9781508610663

In March 2014, an Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) outbreak was reported in Guinea, West Africa. The outbreak is the first in West Africa and has caused an unprecedented number of cases and deaths. The outbreak is continuing to spread in Guinea...more details
Format:Paperback / softback  Pages:32

AUD $31.95

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U.S. Family-Based Immigration Policy

Congressional Research Service

ISBN:9781512308457

Family reunification is a key principle underlying U.S. immigration policy. It is embodied in the Immigration and Nationality Act (INA), which specifies numerical limits for five family-based admission categories...more details
Format:Paperback / softback  Pages:44

AUD $31.95

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U.S. Farm Income Outlook for 2015

Congressional Research Service

ISBN:9781508602019

According to USDA's Economic Research Service (ERS), national net farm income-a key indicator of U.S. farm well-being-is forecast at $73.6 billion in 2015...more details
Format:Paperback / softback  Pages:34

AUD $30.95

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U.S. Immigration Policy - Chart Book of Key Trends

Congressional Research Service

ISBN:9781512250527

Congress has maintained significant interest in neighboring Mexico, a close ally and top trade partner whose political and economic situation has significant ramifications for the United States. President Enrique Pena Nieto of the centrist Institutional Revolutionary Party (PRI) assumed the Mexican presidency on December 1...more details
Format:Paperback / softback  Pages:34

AUD $31.95

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U.S. Natural Gas Exports - New Opportunities, Uncertain Outcomes

Congressional Research Service

ISBN:9781507868041

As estimates for the amount of U.S. natural gas resources have grown, so have the prospects of rising U.S. natural gas exports. The United States is expected to go from a net importer of natural gas to a net exporter by 2016. With recent natural gas prices relatively low compared to global prices and historically low for the United States...more details
Format:Paperback / softback  Pages:32

AUD $31.95

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U.S. Rail Transportation of Crude Oil - Background and Issues for Congress

Congressional Research Service

ISBN:9781512391978

North America is experiencing a boom in crude oil supply, primarily due to growing production in the Canadian oil sands and the recent expansion of shale oil production from the Bakken fields in North Dakota and Montana as well as the Eagle Ford and Permian Basins in Texas. Taken together...more details
Format:Paperback / softback  Pages:30

AUD $21.95

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U.S. Solar Photovoltaic Manufacturing - Industry Trends, Global Competition, Federal Support

Congressional Research Service

ISBN:9781507868027

Every President since Richard Nixon has sought to increase U.S. energy supply diversity. Job creation and the development of a domestic renewable energy manufacturing base have joined national security and environmental concerns as reasons for promoting the manufacturing of solar power equipment in the United States...more details
Format:Paperback / softback  Pages:32

AUD $31.95

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U.S. Trade Concepts, Performance, and Policy - Frequently Asked Questions

Congressional Research Service

ISBN:9781507869994

Congress plays a major role in U.S. trade policy through its legislative and oversight authority. There are a number of major trade issues that are currently the focus of Congress. For example...more details
Format:Paperback / softback  Pages:46

AUD $31.95

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U.S. Trade Concepts, Performance, and Policy - Frequently Asked Questions

Congressional Research Service

ISBN:9781512371864

Congress plays a major role in U.S. trade policy through its legislative and oversight authority. There are a number of major trade issues that are currently the focus of Congress. For example...more details
Format:Paperback / softback  Pages:46

AUD $27.95

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U.S.-Eu Cooperation Against Terrorism

Congressional Research Service

ISBN:9781512393910

The September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks on the United States and the subsequent revelation of Al Qaeda cells in Europe gave new momentum to European Union (EU) initiatives to combat terrorism and improve police...more details
Format:Paperback / softback  Pages:36

AUD $31.95

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U.S.-Mexico Economic Relations - Trends, Issues, and Implications

Congressional Research Service

ISBN:9781508604594

During the 114th Congress, policy makers will likely maintain an interest in Mexico on issues related to cross-border trade and investment; Mexico's economic reform measures...more details
Format:Paperback / softback  Pages:38

AUD $30.95

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Unaccompanied Children from Central America - Foreign Policy Considerations

Congressional Research Service

ISBN:9781508603597

In FY2014, there was a sharp increase in the number of unaccompanied alien children (UAC) traveling to the United States. U.S. authorities apprehended more than 68...more details
Format:Paperback / softback  Pages:28

AUD $30.95

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Unfunded Mandates Reform ACT - History, Impact, and Issues

Congressional Research Service

ISBN:9781507868072

The Unfunded Mandates Reform Act of 1995 (UMRA) culminated years of effort by state and local government officials and business interests to control...more details
Format:Paperback / softback  Pages:56

AUD $31.95

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Unfunded Mandates Reform ACT - History, Impact, and Issues

Congressional Research Service

ISBN:9781508601999

The Unfunded Mandates Reform Act of 1995 (UMRA) culminated years of effort by state and local government officials and business interests to control...more details
Format:Paperback / softback  Pages:56

AUD $30.95

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Veterans Access, Choice, and Accountability Act of 2014 (H.R. 3230; P.L. 113-146)

Congressional Research Service

ISBN:9781508603580

On August 7, 2014, the President signed the Veterans Access, Choice, and Accountability Act of 2014 (H.R. 3230; H.Rept. 113-564; P.L. 113-146). The Department of Veterans Affairs Expiring Authorities Act of 2014 (H.R. 5404; P.L. 113-175)...more details
Format:Paperback / softback  Pages:36

AUD $30.95

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Veterans Affairs - Presumptive Service Connection and Disability Compensation

Congressional Research Service

ISBN:9781512273625

The United States has provided benefits in varying degrees to those who have worn the uniform and suffered disabilities in service to the nation. In general...more details
Format:Paperback / softback  Pages:36

AUD $31.95

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Veterans Exposed to Agent Orange - Legislative History, Litigation, and Current Issues

Congressional Research Service

ISBN:9781512308822

The U.S. Armed Forces used a variety of chemical defoliants to clear dense jungle land in Vietnam during the war. Agent Orange (named for the orange-colored identifying stripes on the barrels) was by far the most widely used herbicide during the Vietnam War...more details
Format:Paperback / softback  Pages:28

AUD $31.95

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Voter Identification Requirements - Background and Legal Issues

Congressional Research Service

ISBN:9781512370973

Some states require voters at a polling place to produce identification before casting a ballot. Such requirements have emerged as a controversial issue in recent elections...more details
Format:Paperback / softback  Pages:28

AUD $31.95

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Wartime Detention Provisions in Recent Defense Authorization Legislation

Congressional Research Service

ISBN:9781507868034

In recent years, Congress has included provisions in annual defense authorization bills addressing issues related to detainees at the U.S. Naval Station at Guantanamo Bay...more details
Format:Paperback / softback  Pages:48

AUD $31.95

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Welfare, Work, and Poverty Status of Female-Headed Families with Children - 1987-2013

Congressional Research Service

ISBN:9781512273717

Eighteen years have passed since repeal of what was the nation's major cash welfare program assisting low-income families with children, the Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) program...more details
Format:Paperback / softback  Pages:118

AUD $27.95

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Who Regulates Whom and How? an Overview of U.S. Financial Regulatory Policy for Banking and Securities Markets

Congressional Research Service

ISBN:9781507868416

Financial regulatory policies are of interest to Congress because firms, consumers, and governments fund many of their activities through banks and securities markets. Furthermore...more details
Format:Paperback / softback  Pages:56

AUD $31.95

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Yemen - Background and U.S. Relations

Congressional Research Service

ISBN:9781508605096

This report provides an overview and analysis of U.S.-Yemeni relations amidst evolving political change in Yemeni leadership, ongoing U.S. counterterrorism operations against Al Qaeda in the Arabian Peninsula (AQAP) operatives in Yemen's hinterlands...more details
Format:Paperback / softback  Pages:38

AUD $30.95

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Yemen - Background and U.S. Relations

Congressional Research Service

ISBN:9781512309737

This report provides an overview and analysis of U.S.-Yemeni relations amidst evolving political change in Yemeni leadership, ongoing U.S. counterterrorism operations against Al Qaeda in the Arabian Peninsula (AQAP) operatives in Yemen's hinterlands...more details
Format:Paperback / softback  Pages:38

AUD $27.95

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The Evolving Congress

Congressional Research Service Library O

ISBN:9781512234244

For 100 years, the Congressional Research Service (CRS) has been charged with providing nonpartisan and authoritative research and analysis to inform the legislative debate in Congress. This has involved a wide range of services...more details
Format:Paperback / softback  Pages:492

AUD $51.95

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